WEEK 18 : The Boy Yeshua Amazes the Scholars

1. SCRIPTURE

Lk. 2:41-50

Lk. 2:41 His parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of Passover.
Lk. 2:42 And when He was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the Feast.
Lk. 2:43 When they had finished the days, as they returned, the boy Yeshua lingered behind in Jerusalem. And Yoseph and His mother did not know it.
Lk. 2:44 But supposing Him to have been in the company, they went a day’s journey, and sought Him among their relatives and acquaintances.
Lk. 2:45 So when they did not find Him, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking Him.
Lk. 2:46 Now so it was that after three days they found Him in the Temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them and asking them questions.
Lk. 2:47 And all who heard Him were astonished at His understanding and answers.
Lk. 2:48 So when they saw Him they were amazed; and His Mother said to Him, “Son, why have You done this to us? Look, Your father and I have sought You anxiously.”
Lk. 2:49 And He said to them, “Why is it that you sought Me? Did you not know that I must be about My Father’s business?”
Lk. 2:50 But they did not understand the statement which He spoke to them.

Luke 2:41-50 (NKJV) Other versions ...


2. COMMENTARY

Vs. 41: A term in Hebrew used for festival or feast is “mo’ed” which means a “set time” or an “appointed time.” God has appointed seasons during the year that He would require the men of Israel to be present in Jerusalem (Deut. 16:16; Exod. 23:14-17). The implication here is that God has an appointment to perform something with Israel on those dates.

Another Hebrew word used in connection with the festivals is “mikrah” which is translated as convocation in most Bibles. It literally means “rehearsal” or recital.”

The implication of this is that the festivals are times that Israel rehearses various aspects of the plan of God. This is good preparation for the time that the Lord fulfills the appointments He has set with Israel. As the pilgrims traveled year by year to Jerusalem for these festivals, the Rabbis taught and speculated on the Messianic aspects of these appointments and rehearsals.

Vs. 42: The commandment for Jewish men to appear in Jerusalem for three of the festivals (Pesach, Shavuoth, and Sukkoth) is called Shalosh Regalim. The Scripture reference for this can be found in Exodus 23:14-17; 34:23; Deut. 16:16. “Three times a year you shall hold a festival for Me: you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread – eating unleavened bread for seven days as I have commanded you – at the set time in the month of Abib, for in it you went forth from Egypt; and none shall appear before Me empty-handed; and the Feast of the Harvest, of the first fruits of your work, of what you sow in your field; and the Feast of the Ingathering at the end of the year, where you gather in the results of your work from the field. Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Sovereign Lord.”

Yeshua is taken at Pesach (Passover) time to Jerusalem when He is twelve years old, according to tradition. He is taken there in preparation for His Bar Mitzvah at thirteen years of age. It is also at age twelve that a son is officially apprenticed to his father. That is the probable meaning of Yeshua’s words, “I must go about My Father’s business.” At the age of thirteen the boy goes through a special ceremony. From that time on, he is under the Law and is responsible for his own sins. Up until this time, in Judaism, the parents are responsible for the sins of the child. However, the Rabbis said, “The first Passover after the twelfth year, and then the preparation for Bar Mitzvah which will happen on the thirteenth year, the son is taken to Jerusalem.” And so in keeping with that tradition, the parents take Yeshua at the age of twelve to Jerusalem for the first Passover in that city, and in preparation for His Bar Mitzvah that will come at the age of thirteen.

Vs. 43: The events in this short segment cover a period of eight days. His parents take Him to Jerusalem, but because they were not traveling alone, but traveling with a group, when the group left Jerusalem the assumption they make is that He was with someone else in the group. Only after traveling a full days journey (15 - 20 miles) and making the first night’s encampment did they discover that He was not there.

Vs. 45-47: After they return to Jerusalem, it takes them three days to find Him. The place where they find Him is the Temple compound where we are told that He was “sitting in the midst of the teachers.” These were the experts and interpreters of the Mosaic Law. Yeshua was sitting among them, both “hearing” them, meaning He understood their in-depth teaching, but also He was answering their questions, the kind of questions that go beyond a normal twelve year old boy. All that heard Him were amazed at His understanding and His answers. And they were all the more amazed in light of the fact that He was from Galilee, and even more significant that He was from the city of Nazareth.

Vs. 49: Another thing that we notice at age twelve, and the result of His training mentioned in Isaiah, is that He recognized His Sonship with God the Father. He reminds His Mother who He is, and that rather than spending three days looking all over Jerusalem they should have known where He was because of who He is. The place where He would be found is in His Father’s house. And so, at the age of twelve, not only doe He have an exorbitant amount of knowledge for His age, but He recognizes His Sonship with the Father. And at this point in time, He also knows that He is the Messiah of Israel.

Vs. 50: According to Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum, in the context of the O.T., there are four different types of Messianic prophecies. The first type deals with the first coming only. There are many prophecies that deal strictly with the first coming. Some examples of this first category include: Deut. 18:15-19; Psalm 16:8-11; 40:8-10; 69:13-28; Isaiah 7:14; Zech. 13:7 and many others. The second type deals with His second coming and nothing else. These include Psalm 2:7-9; 48; 72; 132; Isaiah 2:1-4; 24; 32; Habakkuk 3 and Zech 2.

The third type is a blend of the two comings of the Messiah into one picture. In other words, the prophecy contains a prophecy of the first coming and a prophecy of the second coming, but there is nothing in the text itself to tell you that there is a gap of time between the first and second coming. You know that only from other passages. Some examples of this type of Messianic prophecy include: Gen. 49:10; Psalm 22; Isaiah 9:5-7; 11:1-12; and Zech 9:9-15. Perhaps the best example is Zech. 9:9, 10 because verse 9 clearly speaks of the first coming and verse 10 speaks of the second coming, but there is nothing in the passage to indicate there is an interval of time between the first and second coming.

The fourth type of Messianic prophecy is the type that gives the whole redemptive career of the Messiah and includes four elements: His first coming; the interval between the first and second coming; the second coming; and the Messianic Kingdom. Examples of this category are Psalm 45 and 110.

3. DISCUSSIONS

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