RABBI GUTMANN answers ...
Communion (Greek: koinonia) was said by Sha'ul (Paul) to have its origin in "the Last Supper" (1 Cor 11:23-26). This refers to the Passover or "Feast of Unleavened Bread" Yeshua celebrated with His disciples before His betrayal, arrest and execution (eg Mark 14:1ff).
Some Christian commentators see the reference alluded to in the question, Acts 2:42-47, as referring to the Communion or Lord's Supper celebration-I think that is a reasonable interpretation.
SANDRA JEFFERY answers ...
The first introduction of bread and wine was with Melchizedek, the Bible’s 1st High Priest, in his meeting with Abraham. Jesus, after the breaking of the afikomen (the broken half-matzah that was wrapped and hidden away to be found) during the evening Passover Seder, asked his disciples, when partaking of it according to tradition each year as a reminder of the Passover lamb, to remember him. Following this, the pouring of the 3rd cup of wine of the four cups of the Seder, called the ‘Cup of Redemption’ was done and sipped by all. Matthew 26: 27, 28 “And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it. For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.” The 4th cup Jesus then states he will not drink of until that day when he will drink it new with believers in his father’s kingdom.
Now, at each Passover Seder of Jewish tradition, Jews are asked to remember Jesus and his work on the cross that bought us salvation at this point of this ritual gathering. Non-Jews also remember Jesus with communion at the time of the year of Passover usually without the tradition of the Passover Seder plate, and this is a very solemn remembrance that requires us to repent and examine our hearts before taking the bread and wine so as not to bring damnation upon ourselves as stated in 1 Corinthians 11: 26 – 34.
When the disciples were meeting daily, my guess is they were sharing meals together and thanking Almighty God for his provision of physical food and spiritual food through Christ Jesus. It was the act of sharing, fellowship, community, and union of purpose that happens when we share the same belief.
RABBI NEAL SURASKY answers ...
The concept of communion is not a Jewish one. What is now known and celebrated as communion in the body of Messiah was completed in the context of the Passover seder. This was a once-a-year remembrance of the deliverance of the nation of Israel from bondage in Egypt. It is entirely consistent that Messiah Yeshua would as us to remember Him "as often as we" remember the deliverance from Egypt.
The official Roman-Catholic view of communion wasn't established until the mid-16th century, at the Council of Trent. Other denominational views were offshoots of the Roman-Catholic position, based on various points of disagreement. The Roman-Catholic church has it's foundations in Constantine, the Roman Emperor in the 4th cantury, who made Christianity the state religion of the Empire. It is well-documented that Constantine went to extraordinary lengths to remove the vestiges of 1st century Messianic Judaism from the new state religion. It should not be surprising that the original context of communion was also laid aside.
This is completely different from the daily breaking of bread, which was always a symbol of fellowship.
RABBI CRAWFORD answers ...
Breaking bread with another person or group of people is covenanting with him/her/them. Communion stems from Catholicism, however, the Jewish people have challah and wine each Shabbat-covenanting with G-d in His presence and with each other. Many confuse this with communion, however, in scripture Yeshua says He will not drink from the cup until he comes back for us. Based on this- I would say communion should be done each year at Passover to commemorate the Passover tradition and to learn of the prophecies to come. Some churches do communion every quarter. The lengths they go to – to disobey G-ds’ word and keep people coming for their tithes is quite disgusting actually. Communion every 13 weeks has no significance to it. They are simply playing church and are clueless to what they are doing. By their fruits ye shall know them- and they celebrate Easter- the feast of Ishtar rather than Passover.
MOSHE COHEN answers ...
Communion, as it's known in the Christian world today was unknown to Messianic believers of Yeshua's day. Bread and wine were mainly taken on two occasions in family life; 1- Pesach, the Passover meal. 2- Erev Shabbat, the Eve of the Sabbath (Friday evening in the western world). Wine was also drunk at weddings and at holy feasts. Without sounding too critical I hope, this is another example of something Jewish being changed to something else. The Christian view is that at "The Last Supper" a call was given to take bread and wine often to remember the L-rd's death. What is missing is that the meal mentioned in the Gospels was a Passover (Pesach) Seder. The point of the meal was, and is, is that Yeshua (Jesus) is the Passover Lamb Himself. Every time we celebrate Pesach, we celebrate the fact that Yeshua is our Pesach Lamb and His blood saves us from the wrath of G-d, and saves us from the penalty of our sins, death. We can also carry this over to our Erev Shabbat, Yom Shishi, (Sabbath Eve) meal, which welcomes in our Rest of G-d, the Messiah. We celebrate this by lighting candles to welcome the Light of the World. A woman does this, showing that the Messiah was born of a woman. We then break bread and drink wine to celebrate. The imagery is obvious. In the book of Acts, as a Jew, I would assume that the disciples were showing people that the G-d of the Sabbath was the Messiah. This happened during the season of Passover, so it isn't difficult to understand them going from house to house shouting to people that the Messiah Yeshua had just died for them as the Passover Lamb in the flesh. I can't explain the word "daily", I assume you are talking about Acts 2:42, but in the versions I have the word "daily" does not appear.
RABBI JOSEPH KRESEFSKY answers ...
Communion was introduced back in Exodus 12 – many people don’t realize that communion was the breaking of the matzo cracker during the Passover Seder not the “last supper”. Passover starts the 7 day Moed (Appointed Time) of G_d called Feast of Unleavened Bread. It was during the Passover Seder, at the beginning of this feast, where Y’shua introduces what most people claim as communion.
Here are the words of our Master from Matthew 26:17-26 – “On the first day for matzah, the talmidim came to Yeshua and asked, "Where do you want us to prepare your Seder?" "Go into the city, to so-and-so," he replied, "and tell him that the Rabbi says, `My time is near, my talmidim and I are celebrating Pesach at your house.'" The talmidim did as Yeshua directed and prepared the Seder. When evening came, Yeshua reclined with the twelve talmidim; and as they were eating, he said, "Yes, I tell you that one of you is going to betray me." They became terribly upset and began asking him, one after the other, "L_rd, you don't mean me, do you?" He answered, "The one who dips his matzah in the dish with me is the one who will betray me. The Son of Man will die just as the Tanakh says he will; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been better for him had he never been born!" Y'hudah, the one who was betraying him, then asked, "Surely, Rabbi, you don't mean me?" He answered, "The words are yours." While they were eating, Yeshua took a piece of matzah, made the b'rakhah, broke it, gave it to the talmidim and said, "Take! Eat! This is my body!"
Rav Sha’ul (Apostle Paul) says this in 1 Corinthians 11 – “For what I received from the Lord is just what I passed on to you - that the Lord Yeshua, on the night he was betrayed, took bread; and after he had made the b'rakhah he broke it and said, "This is my body, which is for you. Do this as a memorial to me"; likewise also the cup after the meal, saying, "This cup is the New Covenant effected by my blood; do this, as often as you drink it, as a memorial to me." For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord, until he comes. Therefore, whoever eats the Lord's bread or drinks the Lord's cup in an unworthy manner will be guilty of desecrating the body and blood of the Lord! So let a person examine himself first, and then he may eat of the bread and drink from the cup..”
And as to what the Disciples where doing when they came together, simple - they were fellowshipping together.